Diabetes Mellitus is commonly known by the name of 'Diabetes'. Diabetes affects the ability of the body to produce insulin hormone, which helps blood glucose to enter cell and release energy.
Normally pancreas produce accurate amount of insulin in order to handle the level of sugar in the blood. Diabetes can be caused due to defects in the release of insulin or due to defects in the working of insulin, or due to both the cases. In this condition, excess amount of glucose remains in the blood, leading to its release thorough urine. Due to this elevation in the blood glucose levels, different problems arise, like starvation of the body cells for energy and damage of eyes, nerves, heart, kidneys and blood vessels.
Is Diabetes Curable?
Diabetes is a non-infectious, but lifelong disease. Men with this disease often develop erectile dysfunction, while digestive problems have often been found in most diabetics.
Different Types of Diabetes
There are basically two types of diabetes, classified as Type I and Type II. The Type I diabetes affects individuals below the age of 20. It is found amongst 10% of the total diabetes population. In this type of diabetes Pancreas do not produce insulin at all.
Type II diabetes is not dependent upon insulin. In the past it was called adult-onset diabetes, because of its discovery only beyond the age of 40. But, presently due to the sedentary lifestyle of adolescents and increased cases of obesity, Type II diabetes is also found amongst the younger population. Instances of Type II diabetes has also been found in children below the age of 10, so, it is no longer associated with adults.
There are other three types of diabetes, which are less common. These are Gestational Diabetes, Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) and Secondary Diabetes. Gestational diabetes is experienced during pregnancy and causes a glucose level which is higher than normal reading. Secondary diabetes results from damage to pancreas by factors like, medications, diseases, chemicals or other glands. In impaired glucose tolerance the glucose levels of a person become higher than normal.
There are numerous factors that can cause diabetes. The Type I diabetes is caused due to genetic reasons combined with a weak immune system. Type II diabetes has a number of factors that can cause it in addition to genetic reasons. These reasons can be sedentary lifestyle, obesity, unhealthy diet, abnormal working of pancreas, side effects of medicines, and an earlier history of Gestational Diabetes or Impaired Glucose Tolerance.
Although the symptoms of Type I diabetes are clear, but Type II diabetes is mostly not detected until the patient is treated for some other complications like blood vessel diseases, heart diseases, blindness, kidney problems, impotence etc.
The main symptoms of Type I diabetes are increased thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger, weight loss, fatigue, irritability, blurred vision and nausea. Type II symptoms can include any of the Type I symptoms in addition to sudden weight gain, pain in the feet, sleepiness, vaginal/skin infections and slow healing rashes.
The findings of a 10-year study on treatment and control of diabetes has revealed that a strict control over blood sugar levels is successful in controlling long-term complications arising due to the disease. Other findings suggest a management of diabetes by giving strict attention to diet and exercise. Although there is no comprehensive treatment for diabetes, but control over food and lifestyle have proven effective in leading a normal life.
There are many eye conditions caused by diabetes. For a full list, visit the eye conditions caused by diabetes article.